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American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Niue, and French Polynesia are east of the IDL and one day behind. It follows that meridian until reaching Antarctica, which has multiple time zones.

At the equinoxes, the first place to see daylight would be the uninhabited Millennium Island in Kiribati, which is the easternmost land located west of the IDL.

Near the December solstice, the first places would be Antarctic research stations using New Zealand Time (UTC 13) during summer that experience midnight sun.

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of navigation on the surface of the Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next.

It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups. (Times are approximate, since time zone boundaries generally do not exactly coincide with meridians.

All nations unilaterally determine their standard time zones, applicable only on land and adjacent territorial waters.

This date line can be called de facto since it is not based on international law, but on national laws.

In other places, however, the IDL deviates east or west away from that meridian. Aleutian Islands (Attu Island being the westernmost) and the Commander Islands, which belong to Russia. Thus, all of Russia is to the west of the IDL, and all of the United States is to the east except for the insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Wake Island.

These various deviations generally accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas. The IDL remains on the 180° meridian until passing the equator.

Proceeding from north to south, the first deviation of the IDL from 180° is to pass to the east of Wrangel Island and the Chukchi Peninsula, the easternmost part of Russian Siberia. Two US-owned uninhabited atolls, Howland Island and Baker Island, just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean (and ships at sea between 172.5°W and 180°), have the latest time on Earth (UTC−12 hours).

(Wrangel Island lies directly on the meridian at 71°32′N 180°0′E, also noted as 71°32′N 180°0′W.) It then bends considerably west of 180°, passing west of St. The IDL circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the east, almost reaching the 150°W meridian.

These include portions of the Republic of Kiribati, including Millennium Island in the Line Islands, as well as Samoa during the southern summer.

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