Avenia dating

It is difficult to be sure whether this omission was intended or only represents unintentional drafting errors.

Just over 100 years after the Catalogus was written, Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] compiled a "Book of Fees" which lists properties which had been confiscated from the supporters of his predecessor, King Manfredo, and were restored to their previous owners by the new regime.

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During the ten years of rule by Manfredo King of Sicily, illegitimate son of Emperor Friedrich, a change in the practice of noble appointments can be observed from the primary sources, which reveal only a handful of new counts most of whom were the kings relatives on his mothers side of the family.

The holdings of Manfredos nobles were confiscated by King Charles I after his accession in 1266, and a new group of nobility arrived in the kingdom, notably the various members of the Baux family of Provence who came to Naples with the Angevin king.

This document provides a continuation to the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1), and shows nobles families in the southern half of the Italian peninsula in the 11th to 14th centuries, after the fall of the Lombard principalities, in the area of the present-day Italian regions of Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise and Puglia.

The nobles in question were vassals of the dukes of Apulia, later kings of Sicily.

It is noteworthy that the primary sources so far consulted do not mention any counts who were installed on the island of Sicily itself, the territories established on the Italian mainland presumably being less challenging to maintain.

Two comprehensive documents provide an effective census of nobility in the kingdom of Sicily for the mid-12th and mid-13th centuries.There were numerous new appointments, and counts were frequently switched from one county to another, or dispossessed entirely as punishment for participation in the numerous rebellions organised against the Norman rulers.The information in the primary sources about these early Norman nobles is patchy.The arrival of the Hohenstaufen dynasty from Germany brought a new wave of nobles in its wake, the most influential of which was the family of the Bavarian Markgrafen von Hohenburg.Existing Norman families who supported King Federigo (the future Emperor Friedrich II) retained their positions, but dissatisfaction with the new rulers triggered rebellions and confiscation of their properties which followed the suppression of the revolts, for example the case of the Conti di Sanseverino.In several cases, the sources hint at family connections between these newly established nobility and the Hauteville family of the dukes of Apulia/kings of Sicily, but not all such relationships can be traced precisely.

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